Thursday, August 22, 2019
Church Split During Middle Ages Essay Ultimately, the cause of the Great Schism of 1054 was a question of who was the highest authority. The underlying reasons why there was a split, however, developed in earliest beginnings of the Church. In those days the Church was never completely unified, and several of the original organizations, such as the Coptic Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, which date from ancient times, still exist as separate entities. By far, the largest body of the Church was the one centered in Rome, which from ancient times was made up of two main groups of people, one speaking Latin and one speaking Greek. Latin was the language of the administrative center in Rome. Greek, however, was the original language of much of the New Testament. The linguistic difference was part of a foundation of a split that developed more, and not always for reasons that had anything to do with religious doctrine. Like the Church, the Roman Empire was divided between Latin and Greek areas, and the common understanding of this is skewed. The date we are accustomed to assign to the fall of the Roman Empire was not actually the date of a sudden destruction of a country. In fact, what happened that year was the abdication of the last emperor of the Roman Empire of the West, with authority being reunited in the hands of the emperor of the Roman Empire of the East. And in theory, the Roman Empire continued with what we call the Byzantine Empire today, but what called itself the Empire of the Roman People at the time. For group of people in the East, who considered themselves the rightful administrators of law and Justice, to admit that they had lost control over the West was difficult enough, but in addition to that, the popes were demanding that they acknowledge the spiritual leadership of Rome, with increasing demands for political leadership as well. When Pope Leo Ill crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the West, in 800, it was not a religious issue, but it was a political issue that made the Greeks very upset. From the Greek perspective, Charlemagne and the Pope were usurping the authority of Empress Irene, who was ruling the empire at the time. When Emperor Michael Ill deposed the Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople in 858, the Pope, Nicholas l, declared the action illegal and acted on his own authority to return Ignatius to his position. This caused further problems, and this time it was within the Church itself. In 1014, the Pope again tried to exert authority over the ishops of the East, interfering in a change they were making to the to the Nicene Creed. Right or wrong, this created more strain. The time of continual, simmering resentment continued, as the Popes continued to try to get the Greek bishops to accept the supreme authority of Rome, and the Greek bishops always tried to avoid doing this. Finally, in 1054, a group of legates excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople because he would not take an oath to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope, and he retaliated by excommunicating them. Church Split During Middle Ages By brandyHK
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cannabis and Food Service Essay Introduction I.Attention-Grabbing introduction: According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, a recent government survey shows that over 98 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried marijuana at least once in their lifetime. II.Preview of 3 Main Points: Today I am going to give you information about marijuana legalization. There are three main points to touch on. First, what is marijuana and how does it affect humans. Second, when and why did marijuana become illegal? Third and finally, I will speak about the trend of states legalizing marijuana for medical purposes. Thesis/Specific Purpose Statement: Using these three points, I am going to attempt to inform you about marijuana and the movement to legalize it. Body I.Point One: What is marijuana and how does it affect humans? A.Sub-point A: According to WebMD, marijuana, or cannabis sativa, is a naturally occurring plant that contains several psychoactive ingredients, including delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). B.Sub-point B: When THC reaches the brain, it induces relaxation and a feeling of euphoria. It also typically heightens the senses and relieves pain. Transition Now that we know what marijuana is, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at when and why it became illegal in the United States. II.Point Two: When did marijuana become illegal in the United States? A. Sub-point A: According to an article published in Fortune magazine, marijuana has been utilized by human civilizations for thousands of years. It has been a part of western medicine since the early 19th century. B. Sub-point B: Starting in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, states began outlawing cannabis because it had become associated with violence and psychosis. C. Sub-point C: In 1937, through the Marihuana Tax Act, the federal government effectively outlawed marijuana, in spite of objections by the American Medical Association. Transition: So, we have looked at what marijuana is, as well as when it became illegal in the United States. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s finally look at the current trend of states legalizing marijuana for medicinal purposes. III.Point Three: More and more states are enacting legislation that legalizes medical marijuana. A. Sub-point A: According to the USA Today, when New Jersey passed medical marijuana legislation in 2010, it became the 14th state to legalize marijuana in some form. B. Sub-point B: In addition to this, there are another 14 states that are currently considering legislation that will either legalize medical marijuana or decriminalize possession of personal amounts. Conclusion A.Summary Statement / 3 main points thesis: In review, first we looked at what marijuana is as well as its effects on the human brain, second we saw when and how marijuana was prohibited in the U.S. and third, we looked at the growing number of states that have legalized or decriminalized marijuana. B.Statement tying introduction to conclusion: With a large portion of Americans having tried marijuana, and more and more states considering legislation, it seems that the time has come for a serious debate about the legality of marijuana. Sample Outline Goal: To convince listeners that the often-criticized Campus Food Service is really quite good. Introduction I. How many times have we, as students, complained about Campus Food Service and decided to order in or go out after having previewed that dayÃ¢â¬â¢s menu? II. By showing how the Food Service on campus keeps costs to a minimum, keeps offering a good variety, and keeps maintaining high quality standards, I am going to prove that Campus Food Service is the best meal program for students. Thesis/Specific Purpose Statement: Campus Food Service is vastly underrated. Body I.Cost is not a valid complaint. A. According Myer Tempel, an outside review company, no one is getting rich off Food Service, since proceeds are divided among utilities, labor, wages, and the cost of food. B. An informal survey shows that Campus Food is comparable in price to local restaurants. Transition: Now that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve talked about the cost of the food, letÃ¢â¬â¢s move to quality of the food itself. II.Taste is not a valid complaint. A. According to Matt Davis, the Campus Foods coordinator, and supported by Myer Tempel, all foods served are Grade A, fresh daily, and never reused under any circumstances. B. Every Friday night, Campus Foods has an Ã¢â¬Å"international dinner night,Ã¢â¬ taking us from Latin America to Italy to China. Transition: In addition to preferring tasty food, students also wish for a variety of foods to choose from. III.Lack of variety is not a valid complaint. A. Every day, Food Service offers three entrees and a vegetarian meal, not to mention a salad bar option, breads, soups, and a dessert bar. B. Although Food Service serves a lot of chicken and fish, Myer Tempel says this is because students have requested healthier sources of protein. Conclusion: I. Through consistent efforts to charge students a low price, maintain fresh, tasty standards, and offer a wide variety of food, Campus Food Service is a fair, affordable way for students at the university to dine. II. We are just left with one problem: now that we know all the benefits of eating at Food Service, what are we going to complain about at dinner?
Examine The Distinctions Between Theories Of International Relations Politics Essay Critically examine the distinctions between explanatory and constitutive theories of international relations, illustrating your argument with insights from a variety of theoretical perspectives The distinction between explanatory and constitutive theory is a contested issue that has emerged as a result of the contemporary way of framing issues in International Relations. I will argue that this is an ambiguous and superficial distinction that when pressed to categorise theoretical concepts requires an oversimplification and carries a danger of negligence. I then offer an alternative categorisation; that put forward by Robert Cox ( 1981): problem-solving and critical theory. I conclude by arguing that the act of categorising in itself is highly problematic. Explanatory theory views the world as something external to our theories, indentifying a number of key factors and then predicting a range of outcomes on the basis of a few important causal factors. (Kurki Wight, 2007, p.28) In contrast, constitutive theory argues that our theories help construct our world and that we cannot separate subject and object as a causal relationship; but instead theory and practice are embedded. The epistemology of explanatory theory is positivist, arguing that we can have authentic value- free knowledge based upon sense experience and methodologically using empirical data to produce universal conditionals. (Baylis et al., 2008, p.177) Constitutive theory rejects this epistemological and methodological approach, arguing that human knowledge is not based on neutral foundations, but rather upon human conjectures. Instead, constitutive theory is concerned with the study of how norms, rules and ideas are constituted in social objects; preferring to study from a meta-theoretical perspective. (Kurki Wight, 2007, p.29) Realism, an orthodox theory, is regarded as a classic example of explanatory theory. (Kurki Wight, 2007, p.28) Realism claims that politics and society are governed by objective laws based upon a fixed conception of human nature. (Morgenthau, 1967) The Realist conception of human nature has its roots in the Hobbesian man; a creature of self-preservation, countless appetites and desires; when added to the anarchical state of nature the life of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. (Hobbes, 2008, p.84) This image of man is then extrapolated into the state and world order, giving Realism a rational outline that concludes that states are by nature power maximizers. (Rosenberg, 2001, p.17) This concept of power imposes intellectual discipline upon the observer, infuses rational order into the subject matter of politics (Morgenthau, 1967) and produces the idealisticÃ Ã conception of a balance of power. Overall, Realism advocates a broad positivist scientific epistemolog y by a determinate causal relation between the object and subject i.e. the fixed objective nature of man into a subjective social power relation between states. Another orthodox explanatory theory is said to be Liberalism, which sets out a common positivist epistemology and ontological emphasis on human nature. The Liberal perspective accepts the Realist ontology of human nature and state-centricity, but differs by emphasising the rational qualities of individuals and a faith in the progress of social life. Despite the fixed conception of human nature, man is able to cooperate and construct a peaceful society. (Russett, 2007, p.96) Although not denying the international system is anarchical, there is a disagreement as to what this means and why it matters. (Baldwin, 1993, p.4) Liberalism has a belief in democratic governments, economic interdependence and international law and institutions, in a series of feedback loops each factor strengthening the other and leading to a self-perpetuating peaceful system. (Russett, 2007, p.107) In a sense Liberalism breaks from away from the Realist conception of man, to a more central role of rational indi viduals cooperating and constructing a peaceful society. Once more Liberalism applies a positivist methodology by relating the agency of human nature as the ontological basis and predicting structural power relations between states. So far I have focused upon two generalised orthodox theories and argued that both categorise neatly within the explanatory bracket. However, when moving to the third paradigm of International Relations theory Marxism we find that the distinctions become obscure and potentially misleading if operated negligently. Marxisms methodology operates on a dual basis of dialectical and historical materialism; if taken separately I believe Marxism can wrongly be defined as explanatory theory, whereas, taken in its correct dual sense Marxism bridges the gap between explanatory and constitutive theories. Firstly, dialectical materialism is a theory of struggle and must be understood as in direct opposition to idealism. Contrary to the orthodox theories, dialectics does not regard nature as an accidental agglomeration of things, independent and isolated such as the ontological basis of power and human nature but a connected and integrated whole, in which things are organically interdependent. The dialectical methodology is holistic and therefore holds that we cannot understand the phenomena in nature, if isolated from surrounding phenomena. Contrary to orthodox theory, human nature is not in a state of rest, fixed and immobile, but in a state of continuous movement and change. This dialectical approach has important implications for the way in which Marxism studies social life, removing it from a simple object and subject split, whilst also distinguishing its methodology from orthodox theory. As Marx himself put it, as soon as this active life-process is described, history ceases to be a collection of dead facts as it is with the empiricists. (Marx Engels, 1970, p.48) Nevertheless, Marxism still retains an element of explanatory quality, as dialectical materialism envisages a process of development; where qualitative changes occur not gradually, but rapidly and abruptly, leaping from one state to another; not accidently, but as a natural result of gradual quantitative changes in the unfolding of contradictions inherent in nature. (Stalin, 1938) This dialectical process results in Marxist methodology to scientifically predict the eventual downfall of capitalism to a higher stage of communism. The mistake often made with Marxism is to highlight the objective factors as primarily driving revolutionary change. Instead, by incorporating a reading of Marxist historical materialism, we begin to understand that objective factors inevitably give rise to revolts and not revolution; i.e. objectively the stock market will crash due to the structure of capitalism, giving rise to a subjective revolt. By incorporating historical materialism, Marxism focuses on the subjective factors alive within an epoch of history and seeks to measure the factors for revolution and the factors against; objective factors can include unintentional structures of exploitation and alienation; giving rise to subjective necessity to find a job, or join a union. It is this dialectical interrelation of object and subject that informs the Marxist methodology. Contrary to explanatory theory, which asserts that theory can be separate from practice, and that value-free knowledge is possible due to our sensations, ideas and perceptions; Marxist materialism holds that matter is primary, since it is the source of our ideas, and that our theory is derivative, a reflection of matter and practice. One cannot separate the thought from matter which thinks. Matter is the subject of all changes. (Marx, 2001, p.167) Whatever the material conditions of life of a society, such are the ideas and theories about them it is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness. (Marx, 2001, p.425) In summation, Marxism has scientific qualities and foundational epistemology similar to explanatory theory; yet, by its break towards a more holistic methodology and historical materialist ontology, marks a nascent stage of constitutive theory. The Marxist ideological hypothesis marks a transition towards Post theoretical concepts. Post-structuralism claims that interpretation is void of any objectivity and as such political leaders, social activists, scholars and students all actively engage in a interpretation of the world that is ideological. Post-structuralism attacks the Realist foundational approach, highlighting how state-centric ontology results in predetermined practice; i.e. balance of power emerges as Realism marks a border between inside/outside, sovereign/anarchic, us/them (Campbell, 2007, p.216) and post-structuralism is concerned with how this inside and outside relation is mutually composed. Post-structuralism argues that these interpretations are made from a particular ideological vantage point and hence representation cannot be abstracted from our identities; therefore post-structuralism is concerned with the discourse of identity politics. (Campbell, 2007, pp.214-16) Post-structuralism is essentially conc erned with the deconstruction of truth claims; for example, Realism, Liberalism and Marxism all have a normative position and therefore claim to have uncovered some fundamental truth about the world. (Baylis et al., 2008, p.185) Overall, post-structuralism has a devastating critique and deconstruction of the normative element of traditional theories. However, I would argue that this meta-theoretical critique is useful in retrospect, yet, pacifying and un-politicizing by an failure to change the concrete conditions of society; otherwise contradicting its anti-normative perspective. The distinctions between explanatory and constitutive appear to be problematic and I believe this due to the construction of explanatory theory using a framework of Realist ontology, epistemology and methodology. This forces a superficial distinction to be drawn in the shape of constitutive theory, which directly opposes Realism. Yet, when placing Marxism and to a degree Liberalism within these inflexible categories, an element of overlap is necessary. Instead, using Robert Coxs more flexible categorisation; problem-solving and critical theory helps to show clearly the points of departure and encourage reflection on the process of theorising itself; i.e. to achieve a perspective on perspectives. (Cox, 1981, p.88) Realism and Liberalism would be defined as problem-solving theory due to its negation of the prevailing social and power relationships, as well as institutions and economic structure. The second category is critical theory, it is critical because it refuses to except the exi sting order as a non-historical occurrence, but question how that order came about and how it is maintained. (Cox, 1981, pp.88-89) Overall, the problem-solving and critical distinctions offer more flexibility and clarity between theoretical perspectives. Nevertheless, the distinctions made are on a normative basis and subsequently complicate the positioning of post theoretical perspectives. To conclude, I would argue that the distinctions of Explanatory and Constitutive theory are highly problematic since the act of categorisation, in itself, leads to the creation of new discourses that can dangerously disregard important underpinnings of major theories. As Marx once famously recalled if this is Marxism, then I am not a Marxist (Engels, 1890) and Foucaults effort to escape any fixed identity through his writings, (Gutting, 2005, p.10) illustrates the discomfort of categorisation as practice in political theory.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is a novel full of racism and hypocrisy of the society that we know. Huck continually faces the many challenges of what to do in tough situations dealing with racism and what the society wants him to do. With the novel being written in the first person point of view gives us insightful information into the challenges the Huck is facing and gives us a look into HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s head. Huck uses many different techniques to deal with his problems and he gets through them with the end result always being what Huck believes is right. Through HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective we see how he deals with all of the racism and hypocrisy of society to form him into the character that he is and to serve the themes of the novel. Huck in many instances has a conflict from the racism that society has put forth and he has difficulty deciphering what is right by his heart and what is right by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s standards. In the novel you find Huck lying on many occasions to help protect his slave friend Jim. In one instance Huck poses as a girl in a town down the river to see the response to HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s fake death and JimÃ¢â¬â¢s disappearance. Huck finds out that Ã¢â¬Å"Before night they changed around and judged it was done by a runaway nigger named JimÃ¢â¬ ¦ The nigger run off the very night Huck Finn was killed. So thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a reward out for him-three hundred dollarsÃ¢â¬ (86). With a reward being out for JimÃ¢â¬â¢s capture Huck knows that people are going to be looking for Jim. Huck quickly created a story to protect his slave friend Jim from the feared slave catchers. Huck hides his identity numerous times to protect his friend Jim from danger and possibly death. It takes an extraordinary high moral person to take these kinds of personal risks to prote... ... could not stand such indecency and it bothered him to see that. "It made my heart ache to see them getting fooled and lied to so." (183). Huck in those passages shows a special person, almost a hero, that was uncanny for the time period, showing emotions towards slaves where the rest of the society either didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think anything of it or just thought of slaves as property with no feelings. With all the issues of right and wrong, Huck tries to do the right thing even though most people in the society around him wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t view them as correct. Huck breaking Jim out of slavery and HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of sickness of slave trading, give the reader insightful information on the characters perspective. Through HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective we see how he deals with all of the racism and hypocrisy of society to form him into the character that he is and to serve the themes of the novel.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The media of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society plays the peddler to the stereotypes that plague our country. However, the media is not solely to blame. Susan Sontag states in her essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Image WorldÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"Through being photographed, something becomes part of a system of information, fitted into schemes of classification and storageÃ¢â¬ (Sontag 196). Through our own demand as consumers, the use of advertising in television, newspapers, and especially magazines relays to the public an erratic system of stereotypical information. The system of information relayed through photographic imagery in advertising directly affects the thoughts of society, on how a woman should look and feel. Thus, mixing the stereotypical woman of delicacy, and grandeur with sex and sexuality. The vast amount of stereotypical advertising today is directed at the middle-class, American worker. This specification in advertising is due to the fact that the middle class workers are the main consumers. This idea is represented in the magazine, Newsweek. Printed on April 3, 2000, Newsweek prints numerous articles of news that are not so focused and in-depth, but still contains valid consistency. The magazine is M/C Phillips, Page 2 truly tailored to the middle class and so is its advertising. In the midst of clutter, from articles of political power, to the rise of the doughnut culture, sits an ad of poise and content. Posted by the Target Corporation, a store tailored to the middle class, the ad displays, a very young, beautiful woman covered shoulders to toe in ivy, holding a rayon handbag. She is poised, illustrious and elegant, a mirror image of a statue. The backdrop of the image is calm, organized and serene. The ad reads Ã¢â¬Å"ivy plant $6.99, rayon crochet bag $14.99Ã¢â¬ (Newsweek 7). However, the adÃ¢â¬â¢s imagery at first glance does not fully portray the stereotypes within it. The appearances of stereotypes in this serene ad are hard to find, but are found deep in the t ext of the image. The apparent purpose of the ad is to sell items such as a handbag, and ivy plants. However, the apparent does not relay the reality. The use of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s stereotypical sexuality covers up the real with the fantasy. A stereotype as defined by the Module, Ã¢â¬Å"Images of Women and MenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"is viewed today as a process that distorts realityÃ¢â¬ (Unger & Crawford 219). So in essence this is what the image, or the advertisement has done. Advertising takes the process of photography, and distorts its reality by applying such methods as stereotyping.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a Middle English romance poem written by an anonymous West Midlands poet also credited with a lot of other poems written during that time. The protagonist, Sir Gawain, survives two tests: a challenge, which he alone without the assistance of King Arthur's knights accepts, to behead the fearsome Green Knight and to let him retaliate a year later at the distant Green Chapel; and the temptation to commit adultery with the wife of Lord Bercilak--in reality the Green Knight--in whose castle he stays in en route to the chapel. This story is emblematic of life; how it issues tests and challenges and the consequences rendered as a result of failing or succeeding these challenges. Sir Gawain is a very symbolic character; symbolic in the sense that he represents innocence in life. He was not afraid to accept a challenge because it meant saving the kingdom from the affects of anarchy as a result of not having a king. Sir Gawain accepting the challenge from the Green Knight instantly represented one of the things that knighthood represented, fearlessness. People accept those kind of challenges everyday. This could possibly be where the term "sticking your neck out" could have come from. When people accept challenges, most do not want to accept the consequences as a result of being unsuccessful. Gawain was not like this. When the year passed he gallantly mounted his horse and set off for the Green Chapel. This showed that Gawain was brave. This was preceded by the warning "Beware, Gawain, that you not end a betrayer of your bargain through fear." Along this journey Gawain faces peril and self-reluctance in the form of the elements and the never-ending search for the chapel respectively. These feeling can be characterized as the inner turmoil suffered as a result of dealing with one's conscience. The journey also tested his faith in the sense that he was constantly in prayer during his journey, and not once did he curse or renounce the name of God. It seems as if the prayers were what kept Gawain sane and focused on the purpose of his journey. Gawain's prayers were answered when he rode along and finally came upon a place that he could petition for possible rest.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Appointment with Love This is a short romantic story about a young lieutenant Blandford and a lady, Hollis Meynell, who had fallen in love with each other. The author shows us the possibility of existence of a real strong relationships even through a great distance and the fact that two people can be very close to each other even having never seen one another. The young lieutenant Blandford served during the war time in the air forces , while once he run across some witty notes made by a woman in the book which he had taken from the army library .He contacted her later and it so happened that she had had the power to reach inside of him through writing and renew his strength even from a far. They had been in touch, through writing, during thirteen month. This time the woman, who was 30, supported and inspired the lieutenant and they both trusted their true inner feelings to each other. At last the young people decided to meet ,personally, when the lieutenant was back from the Army, a t the train station in New York city.They both agreed that Hollis would identify him through the book Ã¢â¬Å"Of Human BondageÃ¢â¬ and Hollis, would wear a red rose in her suit lapel, because actually, they did not know how which one of them looked like. Now the young lieutenant was waiting for this woman in Grand Central Station and worried a lot. They knew about each other only from their own words. The first woman he saw was a beautiful lady, wearing a green suit but unfortunately, she had no red rose on her jacket, as it was in their agreement.Then he turned around and saw a middle aged and unattractive woman who had, to his disappointment and chagrin, a red rose in her jacketÃ¢â¬â¢s lapel. For the young lieutenant that was the moment of truth. A lot of thoughts and feelings had flown throughout his mind and his heart like a hurricane during that dreadful moment but at last he somehow managed to control himself and moved towards her. He decided that no matter what would beco me with their relationship to stay friends with that woman , thinking that if so, their good friendship, for that matter, could be more valuable than love.He approached and greeted the lady and then asked for permission to take her to dinner. But was pleased to hear that she is not the one he was waiting for. She told him that Hollis had asked her to be her substitute for a little while and to wear the rose in her suit lapel so that she could test whether Blanford's feelings and intentions were really sincere. The main idea of the story is that if you love someone, you should love them for what they really are, and not for what they look like.